Briefly describe some (at least four) aspects of Greek culture prior to and at the time of Socrates and Plato.
- What does it mean to say that a culture is “mythopoetic”? What was the cultural significance of the ‘Tales” of Homer and Hesiod?
- Before 500 BC the Greeks answer to, how does one live a good life was, “to follow the gods and to accept moira (fate).” After 400 BC the answer to this question was not as clear to them. Why? What had happened?
- Who is Aristophanes, and what image does he give us of Socrates in his play The Clouds? Is this reflection of Socrates historically accurate? Explain.
- Who were the Sophists? What type of courses did the Sophists teach? (3-5 sentence reply)
- What meaning did the Sophists give to the expression “might makes right”?
- What were the major “concerns” of the Sophist?
- Define: Cosmology, Cosmogony, and Theogony.
- What do you think Protagoras meant when he said “man is the measure of all things”?
- What was the principle difference between Socrates and the Sophist? What was Socrates “looking for” that the Sophists were not?
The Pre-Socratics from Science to Philosophy
- According to the readings, what were the specific tasks for Socrates and Plato?
- “Plato disliked the poets and the artists.” Why?
- What does it mean to say “The Greeks were moving from MYTH to PHILOSOPHY”?
- What were the “underlying assumptions” of the early philosophers, the early scientists, about Greek culture?
- What was unique about the “works” pre-Socratic philosophers? What were they searching for and what did they base their thinking on? Explain.
- What was Thales looking for?
- What were the 4 basic elements for Empedocles?
- What was Pythagoras fundamental contribution to the world of though?
- What did Heraclitus believe about all things?
- What was reality for Parmenides?
- What sort of questions was Socrates concerned with? List a few of the “key events in Socrates lifetime.”
- Why did the Delphic Oracle say “there is no one wiser than Socrates”? How did Socrates interpret this?
Socrates’ Trial and in Prison
- What did Meletus accuse Socrates of? Approximately how old was Socrates, and what significance does it have at his trial?
- Who is Euthyphro and what was the nature of the discussion he had with Socrates? And, what is the Divine Command Theory?
- What was the nature of Socrates trial? What was Socrates Defense? Why was he convicted? Why was he sentenced to death?
- Socrates believed that no harm can come to a good man, neither in life nor in death. What do you think he meant, and do you agree?
- Why did Socrates think it was wrong to escape from jail and flee the city after his conviction?
Plato’s Theory of Forms
- Briefly describe Plato’s Theory of Forms.
- What are Socrates four arguments for the existence of the Soul?
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