The aim of this research project is to examine the representation of women and the use of dance in Kuwait cinema from 1974 to 2014. These aspects of Kuwait cinema will be analysed through the prism of feminist film and dance theories. I also aim to produce new knowledge on Kuwait cinema’s history and its relation to aspects of Kuwait society.
To document the industrial and aesthetic characteristics of Kuwait cinema from 1974 to 2014;
To promote the restoration and use of the Kuwaiti film archive, which was destroyed during the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990
To examine the representation of women and the use of dance in Kuwaiti films;
To assess the relevance and applicability of feminist film and dance theory to the analysis of Kuwait films;
To revisit and redefine aspects of these theories in the light of my findings on the functioning of Kuwait cinema as a practice rooted in specific socio-historical dynamics and tensions.
How has Kuwait cinema depicted women in the last fifty years and how this has evolved with the changes that have affected women’s position in Kuwait society?
How is dance used in Kuwait films and to what extent the different types of female dance have been incorporated in these films?
How did cultural, social, political and economic factors impact on the representation of women and on the use of dance in Kuwaiti films?
What new theoretical frameworks and approaches are best suited to an understanding of the representation of women and the use of dance in Kuwaiti cinema?
How can existing theories of film and dance be reformulated so that we can arrive at a better understanding of cinema in Kuwait and of dance in this cinema as forces of social change, especially with regard to women’s position in Kuwait society?
One of the objectives of this research is to compile the first complete historiography of Kuwait cinema. No such history exists at present, even if Kuwaiti nationals have been making films for fifty years. My second, more important objective is to examine how this cinema has represented women, and especially how it has dealt with such presentations in its use of dance, which is a central element of Kuwait films. My third, equally important objective is to test the possibilities and limits of existing feminist film and dance theories when applied to the analysis of Kuwaiti films. Finally, once I have identified those limits, I am to reformulate aspects of established film and dance theories in the light of my empirical. Analytical findings on Kuwait cinema and, in the process, to expand the historiographic and analytical possibilities afforded by current theoretical models.
This research will consists of two parts or components:
1. A written component: archival research on, and analysis of Kuwait cinema, focusing on its representation of women and its use of dance as an important element in the films;
2. A practical component: the production of a documentary film that traces the cultural, social, political and economic contexts in which these films were made, the stories of the women who worked or acted in the films, and of those who simply watched them.
Literature Review/Theoretical and Practical Framework:
1. Historiography Of Kuwaiti Cinema
In 1961, the Ministry Of Orientation And Information in Kuwait was mandated to promote, oversee, and sponsor cinematography in Kuwait (Al-Sanousi, 1962, p 26). As such, cinema flourished quickly as five theatres became operational and the state television was launched. Foreign, Arabic and locally produced films were shown as public awareness and interest in arts and culture surged. While the foreign and Arabic films shown comprised a wide variety of genres, the locally produced films were limited to documentaries and educational material about the culture and customs of the people living in the region. The first locally produced feature film Bas ya Bahar (Cruel sea)- by the Kuwaiti director Khalid Al-Siddiq- was released in 1972, nearly after ten years (DiPiazza, 2006, p54). It was followed by two other feature films, Al Samt (The Silence) (1976) and Al Fakh (The Trap) (1983) respectively.
After these initial productions, locally produced feature films took a down turn until the new millennium where some small productions were released but very sporadically. My initial research indicates that 17 Kuwaiti films were made since 1961. Furthermore, it was noted that the regulations governing cinematography in Kuwait are quite restrictive due to the prevalent Islamic and traditional culture. As such, the representation of women and use of dance in these films were limited and constrained (Hammond, 2005, p 35).
As mentioned earlier, state records of locally produced films were destroyed during the Iraqi invasion in 1990. Although the ministry of information, the higher council of arts and culture, and other local organizations and concerned individuals attempted to restore some records, material and information is still scarce and unorganized. Furthermore, academic research and material about Kuwaiti cinema is practically non-existent except for a few books and articles which allude to Kuwaiti cinema within a larger context related to arts, cultural development, modernization, regional production attempts…etc.
As such, in order to achieve the first objective of my research, which is to trace the history and main characteristics of Kuwaiti cinema, I will collect and examine information and film materials from various sources. Then I will organize and classify the collected information into a comprehensive reliable reference material about Kuwaiti cinema that can become part of the national archives and can be used by other researchers and scholars.
Similarly, in order to achieve my second and main objective, which is to examine the representation of women and the variety of dances used in Kuwaiti films. I will benefit from selected international literature related to the ethnographic aspects of cinema in other countries and cultures in examining these features in Kuwaiti cinema.
2.1 Dance In Kuwait And It’s Cinema
Kuwaiti has similar cultures to other Arabian countries in the gulf region, but it is the only country in the area that has a theatrical tradition that originated around the year 1960’s (Hammond, 2005, p 277). However in terms of dance, the region has similarities in terms of music and dance from Saudi Arabia, it borrows a lot from Iran and Iraq (Rebecca Torstrick, 2009, p 3). Similar to many other Arabic nations like Sudan, and Saudi Arabia, the traditions in Kuwait are controlled and institutionalized by the society (Shafik, 1998, p 9).
Due to historical connection with slave trade and immigration from Africa, most Kuwaiti dances, have accompanying music and instruments such as drums can be traced back to Africa (Daly, 2002, p. 23). For instance, the Samri dance is accompanied with percussion instruments such as the drums and tar (an instrument similar to the tambourine). The Kuwaiti Senate even agrees that drums have been used in exorcism practices (McCrea & Al-Nadji, 2012, p 59). Exorcism practices used to take place in-group sessions by women in a house where the sick person is made to dance to the rhythm of drums and tambourines. Also music and dance were used in weddings as part of the celebration and guest entertainment. Kuwait weddings take place for three days and during the wedding ceremonies the friends and relatives participate in singing, clapping and dancing (Monger, 2013, p 416). The influence of Kuwait’s history is also evident in folks dance. Rubin (1999, p 132) stated that folk dancing is part of Kuwaiti and Arab traditions.
Following Kuwait’s independence from the British rule in 1961, nationalism and sense of identity surged. As a result, Kuwaiti people spread folklore, poems, and songs about their nation and culture in their own language. Later on, these performances were included in theatre and film to illustrate and promote Kuwaiti culture and identity. This marked the start of modernization and cultural development in Kuwait which moved fast to include cinematography for the first time in the Gulf region as described by Al-Sanousi, (1962, p 26). This early development was due to recording of commercial and non-commercial discs in the 1900s (Desmond 1997, p 30).
There is considerable literature about the influence of religious and traditional social customs on cinematography in Arab and Islamic countries. For example, Shafik (1998, p 9) highlights that cinema was introduced to these countries only during the French and British colonization period from 1899 to 1961. She also adds that while production of films continued after their independence became heavily influenced and controlled by the local cultural and Islamic teachings. Furthermore, the struggle for identity and nationalism exhibited the conflicts between Islam and traditional practices and cultures. For instance, in many Arabic countries belly dancing has been taught to girls as a right of passage (Hammond, 2005, p 236). This form of dance originated from the Nile areas in Egypt where dancing, clapping and singing were performed in religious rituals. However, Islamists have criticized these dances as being explicit acts of moral decay in the society (Hammond, 2005, p 236).
It is only logical to assume that the history of dance in Kuwaiti cinema was affected by the same struggle for national identity and the same conflicts between religion and traditional practices. For example, AlSiddiq (1995, p 154) mentioned in his interview for the Alif magazine that the culture, customs and traditions of the Kuwaitis could be preserved through films for future generations. He emphasized the importance of keeping their culture alive through preserving their customs in visual works like films for future generations to remember them. These statements from the Kuwaiti director who launched the first Kuwaiti feature film in 1972, support the assumption that Kuwaiti dance must have been used in Kuwaiti films. While, Faier, stresses that Kuwait is an Arab nation strongly influenced by Islamic rules (Faier, 2009, p 21).
Unfortunately, there is no literature that discusses these issues in any detail with regards to Kuwaiti cinema. Thus I will use literature related to other countries including Arab and Islamic nations to guide me in the examination and analysis of dance in in Kuwaiti films.
The new technology in the field of media, film production in Kuwait among other Arab countries has revolutionized and the industry has expanded to accommodate the rhythm of dancing in its features (Torstrick and Faier, 2009, p 128). Kuwaiti cinema has shown the impact of globalization on local culture. According to Satti (2013, p 7). Western culture is being spread in Kuwait as a result of the prevalence of Western media in local shows and films. Nonetheless, the research study conducted by Satti (2013) shows that Kuwaiti people favour local television shows and films from that released in the United States or other Western countries. The values and behaviour of the Kuwaiti audience illustrate traditionalism in the way that they patronise local films and television shows instead of popular Western media.
2.2 Women and dance
In most Arab countries, men and women practice traditional dance separately or together. For example, wedding celebrations are held by women for the bride and by men for the groom. Each group performs different dance routines expressing special sentiments; men dancing convey gallantry while women dancing convey beauty and fertility. In rural areas in Egypt where men and women work the fields together, they perform various dance routines jointly to express their joy at the end of hard workday or for the abundant harvest.
In Kuwait, men and women usually practice traditional dance separately. Women dance is limited to female gatherings during social events such as weddings. Men dancing, however, are practiced during many more events such as weddings, national celebrations, preparing for pearl diving voyages and safe returns. This separation can be attributed to the restrictive religious rules that prohibit women from dancing in front of people who are not their close family members (Altork, 1988, p 98).
In Kuwait, Women have had special costumes that they wear during specific dances. For instance, in Kuwait; women put on colourful -Thobe Nashal- a traditional gown that is loose fitting and is worn over a longer party dress or kaftan is otherwise called Qumaash that makes them look attractive while dancing (Altork, 1988, p 98).
Dances have many specific functions in the Kuwaiti region; they perform spiritual, educational, social and therapeutic functions. For instance, the Samri dance that is performed by women in Bas Ya Bahar (1972) film is a traditional dance that is being performed in Kuwait at social and family gatherings as well as weddings (Alzayer, 2010, p 59). The role of film production and increased women participation in the industry is a clear indication of how Kuwaiti women have become diversified and transformed overtime (Mitoma et al., 2002). Due to their role in the society, their participation in filmmaking is an indication of transformation women in Kuwait have undergone from the time of Greek rule in the 3rd century BC up to date (Kilner & Wallace, 1979, p 344). Their participation has made them to become highly recognized and appreciated in the society. They have been able to become independent financially since they have significantly transformed from being passive to active (Mokate, 2004, P 3).
3. Women in Kuwaiti Cinema
Women have played a critical role in cinematography in Kuwait especially in dances they took part in several of the traditional dances including the al-Uns and the Baddawi songs (Urkevich, 2015, p 21). Baddawi for instance, is a dance that danced by maidens to symbolize their readiness for marriage. During these performances women were allowed to show off their long flowing hair as a sign of beauty and vitality (Dickson, 1949, p 118). Certain movements were symbolic for example; the raising of palms and opening of arms were symbolic for her readiness for marriage.
Traditionally, men are the authority figures of the society and women are expected to obey and submit to them. This patriarchal nature of the society is still evident in these modern times. Therefore, this has always had negative impacts on female especially in theatre with majority of them taking a back seat (Butler, 2002, p 3). But the changes in the society including the acknowledgement of women in the society due to the various feminists movement has improved the roles of women seat (Butler, 2002, p 3), more of the women are now involved in cinematography.
With the economic development in Kuwait, the role of women in the society has significantly changed. With the discovery of oil in 1936, women began participating and joined the Kuwait labour force. This was mostly triggered by the influence of the society and formation of non-governmental organizations (Torstrick and Faier 2009, p 111). Currently, women in Kuwait have more freedom in expressing their opinions various media platforms. As a result, Kuwait women today can now join various dance groups and participate in joyous family, weddings and other occasions to entertain one another (Olimat, 2009, p 201). Women in Kuwait today have the right to perform various dancing styles in front of men and in front of the whole society (Al Mughni, 1993, p 174). Young girls and women in the modern times within various societies in Kuwait participate in folk dances and participate in various occasions such as, graduation, at school, end of year’s ceremonies, charity events among other occasions that are held at various times in Kuwait.
There are three phases of “female consciousness” as described by Al-Sharekh (2006, p 155), these stages include the ‘feminine stage’, the ‘feminist stage’ and the ‘female stage’; they clearly describe the transition of female cinematography in the traditional male dominated culture until now when women are highly accepted in the field. In the initial phase that is the feminine stage there was a clear distinction in the roles played by men and women, discrimination was high in fact females were forced to take up male names in order for them to be accepted in film. In the second stage there was an uprising to support female roles in cinematography. Finally, in the last phase there is acceptance of women in the industry. The theory of legitimate authority clearly describes the process described by Al-Sharekh (2006, p 155). It states the progressive factors especially in male dominated societies (Gonzalez, 2013, p 2). The theory has two components, authority and legitimacy. It describes serious issues of inequality in the society and seeks to describe the expansion of women boundaries on birth authority and legitimacy while still obeying Islamic rules (Gonzalez, 2013, p 3). Kuwait initially performed female dances as described above that were mainly aimed at male entertainment depicting a strong male dominance in the society. Currently however, women can freely participate in folklore dances in various occasions that are held in various occasions in Kuwait.
Feminism is a social movement that has significantly affected the film industry (Annette, 1994, p 67). Feminism theory has played a critical role in cinema on emphasizing the role of women in cinema and fighting against any opposing cultural or political hindrances that prevents women in participating in cinema related activities including active participation as authors, directors and actresses (Annette, 1994, p 71).
Feminism and feminist theory has played a very critical role in transformation of dances in Kuwait giving women the chance to participate in the dances when they are specifically prohibited by the Islamic laws (Mack, 2004, p 4). Therefore, the research will also investigate the role played by various feminists in transforming Kuwaiti dances which Al- Raida (2008, p 91) claims that they have been in existence for over a thousand years. Cook (2007, p 492) describes how various feminists played critical roles in ensuring that women played important roles in cinema such as Claire Johnston who spoke against the different stereotyping of women in films and regarding them ‘not man’.. Nowadays women play critical director roles in Hollywood, for example, Penny Marshall, who has directed various comedies and Kathryn Bigelow who has directed several action movies that were initially male dominated (Cook, 207, p 501). Therefore, such feminist have allowed the successful struggle for self-representation of women in film.
In Kuwait and other countries interested in film making, Cinema and film production is taken by feminist as a traditional and a cultural practice that signifies the myths about femininity and women and about masculinity and men. When it comes to feminist film theory, issues of representation are given a priority. At the early stages of development of film industry, endless repeated images of women was not regarded as it was considered to have a negative impact in the women and in the general society (Penley, 2013, p 27). Some of the films produced in the Arab world such as The Silence Of The Palace directed by Moufida Tlatli in 1994 and Bab Al- Sama Maftuh by Farida Benlyazid in 1989 sought to bright out the oppression of women in the society in which women were not supposed to be heard (Donmezcolin, 2007, p 5).
In majority of the Arab worlds, which were majorly patriarchal societies, women were culturally restricted and could not voice their concerns the film the silence by clearly depicts that in his film especially in women who were servants and concubines. However, film has also described the changes of women from the traditional society to a modern society that accepts women example of such a film is the Ten produced by Abbas Kiarostami in 2002(Donmezcolin, 2007, p 5). However, currently women have been accepted to participate not only as actors but also now directors of play, for instance ’Shirin’ which was written and directed by Abbas Kiarostami in 2008 including other women (Elizabeth, 2006, p 39). On the other hand, examples of Kuwaiti female filmmakers are Monira AlQaderi, Farah Zain AlHashem and Dana Al Mojil.
It has been observed that Kuwaiti women live in a male-centred society that highly limits where freedom of expression is limited by socio-religious values. Among these limits is one placed on dancing in public. However, in films dancing is permitted to some extent and this helps express situations that can’t be expressed through words or directly in public.
The primary research design is historiography. Historiographies today provide “an exploration of the various contexts that affect historical thinking in any one time and place… [and] involves consideration of the broader cultural, social, economic, and political forces that shape historical writers and their writing (Given, 2008, p 400).” The historical exploration of this research will focus on feminism as one of the “forces” that affect Kuwaiti cinematic and general history. Historiography was chosen over other research designs such as phenomenology or ethnography. The historical thrust of this research means investigating the past, and it is impossible to directly experience the past and “reflect on the significance of what is happening (Calaresu, et al., 2010, p 3)” that phenomenology demands. Ethnography, which aims to describe a culture, does not fit the objectives, too, as ethnography’s goal of describing an entire culture is too large in scope when considering the time frame of Kuwait cinema from 1972 to present day.
Gathering material and information about Kuwaiti films
2.i) Thematic and technical analysis of Kuwaiti films
2.ii) Feminist film theory
2.iii) Dance in film theory
3. Practice component
Methodology for the written component:
The first part of the written component – records of Kuwaiti films- will be achieved through archival research of books, references, articles and records as well as interviews with selected Kuwaiti officials, historians, artist, Kuwaiti directors and cinema advocates and gathering of all film materials. This will enable me to collate, validate, and organize an extensive index of all Kuwaiti films categorized and classified using international standards.
The second part of the written component – analysis of women and dance in these films- will be achieved by close reading of these films, the Kuwaiti dance culture, and feminist film theory. It will also benefit from the approaches used in other similar and/or relevant researches and studies regarding the cinema of other countries such as Anne Morcom’s Illicit Worlds of Indian Dance- Cultures of Exclusion. The analysis will also examine the impact of socio-economic and political changes and events on the Kuwaiti cinema. Also, particular attention will be placed on the growing participation of the females in the society and its impact on the representation of female dance traditions in Kuwaiti cinema.
Methodology for the practical component:
For the practical component, I will follow documentary filmmaking approaches to produce a documentary film (video and audio recording) and put into practice some of the theories found out in the written component of the research. The documentary film will be produced in a similar vein to Mura Dehn’s The Spirit Moves: A History of Black Social Dance on Film, 1900-1986 (2008), where clips of dances in films are presented, along with commentary on their development.
While the research will provide an overview of Kuwaiti cinema as a whole in the archival research, this will not be an in-depth look at all of the different ways that Kuwaiti cinema has changed from the first film in 1972 up to the present day. The focus on feminism also limits the research in that an overall view of Kuwaiti history will not be tied to dance in cinema—only issues of female identity, social roles and norms will be the focus. The timetable below gives almost a year for the writing of each chapter, which means a lot of leeway and flexibility should there be unforeseen delays such as temporary lack of access to film archives or unavailability of interviewees. The choice of films to be featured in the historiography can be streamlined if such delays occur.
The research will be, for the most part, carried out in Kuwait city where archival information can be searched and collated from the various local resources such The Ministry of Information in Salhiya as well as from interviewees. As for the documentary film, it will also be shot in Kuwait at AlMarsam AlHor and Bait AlSadu – both are art centres adequately equipped for documentary filmmaking. The researcher will secure the location for shooting and acquire location release form permission.
The research will conduct interviews with well-known Kuwaiti historians, cinema directors and advocates, feminists and artists as well as officials who have extensive knowledge about the history of Kuwaiti cinema, the cultural and social traditions, and art works. The list of potential interviewees provided below is only preliminary and could vary depending on availability and research needs:
(1) Mr. Khalid Al Siddiq, the director of Bas ya Bahar and The Wedding of Zein.
(2) Ms. Haifa Al Fuzaie, a Kuwaiti female dancer who specializes in folk dances.
(3) Dr. Alanoud Al Sharekh, a researcher on youth and gender demographics, and an expert on Arab feminist theory.
(4) Mr. Mohammed Al Sanousi, a Kuwaiti director of Al Asifah (1965), producer, media personality and politician who served for eight months as Kuwait’s Minister of Information. He has written many articles on television and cinema, which will complement the scope of the research.
The interview questions will be given in advance for preparation and introduction to the research topic. The interviewees will be in informed where and when the interview will take place, and will coordinate the time and location in advance for convenience.
Filmmaking Practice-based Approach
As part of the practice-based research, the thesis will be handed in with a DVD of a documentary film presenting the historical development of female dance performances in Kuwaiti films. It will be featuring live dance events informed by film theory on feminine subjectivity, as introduced by the feminist critics Teresa DeLaurentis and Laura Mulvey. The subjectivity of the female experience finds expression in narratives (Smelik, 2007, p 496) and such narratives are created during dance performances in cinema. The interviews will expand on what the historical changes of these subjective narratives mean for the evolution of Kuwaiti female identity, female social roles, taboos and norms.
Proposed Outline of Chapters
1. Literature review
1.1 Historiography of Kuwaiti cinema
1.2 Feminist film theory
1.3 Dance theory
3. History of Kuwaiti cinema: outline
4. Women in Kuwaiti cinema: case studies
5. Dance in Kuwaiti cinema: case studies
Conclusion [never counts as chapter, so no number]
Appendices: interviews, and brief analysis/commentary
The main ethical considerations in the research concern the interviews for the written component and the acquisition of location release form for the documentary film. The interviewees and the participants in the documentary will all be asked to sign consent forms, which allow for their accounts/footage to be used for the study. This is in accordance with the policies and practices of University Academic Research. An Ethical application will be applied in order to allow proceeding. Ethical considerations such as ensuring that they are properly represented and the parts of the interview that they wish to remain confidential will be maintained.
The interviewees will be provided a transcript of the interview and a copy of the research sections where their accounts are featured, so that they can verify that their interview is represented accurately in the research.
As the documentary, there will also be consent forms provided for them. If the consent decides that some parts of their preparations would not be included in the documentary for personal reasons or concerns about privacy, the dialogue would help identify these parts so that they can be excluded from the documentary footage. The participants of this research can withdraw their consent anytime, and will be able to contact me for any concerns regarding the interview or the shooting of the documentary.
Task Start Date Duration End Date
(1) Preparation for interviews questions with main contact persons (Consent and Participant Forms) and scheduling of Interviews; (2) Preparation of University Research Ethics Form (UREC); (3) Writing of initial draft for Literature Review 1-Sep-15 3 months 31-Dec-15
Transfer successfully from MPhil to PhD 14-Oct-15 2 weeks 30-Oct-15
2015 Annual Review 25-Dec-15 1 week 30-Dec-15
Video/Audio Test/ Recording for Interviews 3-Mar-16 4 months 31-Jul-16
Transcription and analysis of Interviews 1-Aug-16 4 weeks 30-Aug-16
Write-up of Interview to send to Supervisors and Interviewees for feedback 1-Sep-16 4 weeks 1-Oct-16
Comments received, revisions made and re-sent to Supervisors for further feedback 15-Oct-16 4 weeks 1-Nov-16
Write-up of Chapter 1 (remaining sections) and send off to supervisors for feedback 1-Dec-15 4 months 1-Mar-16
Comments received, revisions made and re-sent to Supervisors for further feedback 14-Mar-16 4 weeks 1-Apr-16
Writing of Chapter 2: History of Representations of Women in Cinema 2-Apr-16 4 months 31-Jul-16
Sending of Chapter 2 to Supervisors for Feedback 1-Aug-16 4 weeks 14-Aug-16
Comments received, revisions made and re-sent to Supervisors for further feedback 15-Aug-16 3 weeks 5-Sep-16
Writing of Chapter 3: Debates on Dance and Women 10-Sep-16 5 months 10-Jan-17
2016 Annual Review 25-Dec-16 1 week 31-Dec-16
Sending of Chapter 3 to Supervisors for Feedback 11-Jan-17 2 weeks 18-Jan-17
Comments received, revisions made and re-sent to Supervisors for further feedback 19-Jan-17 2 weeks 2-Feb-17
Writing of Chapter 4: Contemporary Experiences of Women/Dance/Film 1-Mar-17 4 weeks 1-Jun-17
Sending of Chapter 4 to Supervisors for Feedback 2-Jun-17 2 weeks 16-Jun-17
Comments received, revisions made and re-sent to Supervisors for further feedback 17-Jun-17 4 weeks 1-Jul-17
Preparation for shooting of documentary alongside preparation of Consent, Participation, and Location Forms 2-Jul-17 4 weeks 2-Aug-17
Arrange the dates to reserve the shooting place; revise it with the actors, and camera test. 3-Aug-17 2 weeks 17-Aug-17
Send the documentary to supervisor and comments received, worked on and handed back to Supervisors for further feedback 18-Aug-17 2 weeks 1-Sep-17
Pre-production preparation such as securing location permits, acquisition of personnel and equipment 2-Sep-17 4 weeks 2-Oct-17
Documentary shooting proper 1-Oct-17 3 months 31-Jan-18
2017 Annual Review 25-Dec-17 1 week 31-Dec-17
Editing of Footage and Cinematography 1-Feb-18 4 weeks 1-Feb-18
Sending of the first version of the documentary film to supervisors and to the couple for feedback 2-Feb-18 2 weeks 16-Feb-18
Revising and editing of the film for the final version 17-Feb-18 4 weeks 19-Mar-18
Hand in final thesis and prepare for the viva 1-Apr-18 2 weeks 14-Apr-18
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