# Explain what is meant by a positive relationship between two variables and a negative relationship between two variables.

Note: the following two questions use the same set of data as Problem 3 in Module 1 Assignment.
(Hypothetical data) Is a person’s race related to victimization? Suppose you have surveyed 30 people. You ask them:
Would you describe yourself as White (w) or Non-White (n)?
Would you describe yourself as Middle (m) or Working (w) Class?
Have you been a victim of a crime in the past year? (Yes = 1 or No = 0)

Case Race Class Victim N_times_vic
1 w w 1 1
2 w m 0 0
3 n w 1 1
4 n w 1 1
5 n w 1 2
6 w w 0 0
7 w m 0 0
8 w m 0 0
9 w w 1 1
10 n w 1 1
11 n w 1 2
12 w m 0 0
13 n w 0 0
14 w w 0 0
15 n w 1 1
16 w m 0 0
17 w w 1 2
18 w w 1 1
19 w w 1 1
20 n m 0 0
21 n m 1 2
22 w w 1 1
23 w w 0 0
24 n w 1 1
25 w m 0 0
26 w w 1 1
27 n m 0 0
28 n w 0 0
29 n w 0 0
30 w m 1 1

Construct a bivariate table of frequencies for race and victimization. Which is the independent variable?
Calculate percentages for the table based on the independent variable. Describe the relationship between race and victimization using the table.
Use the data to construct a bivariate table to compare victimization experience of those who are middle class and those who are working class. Use percentages to show whether there is a difference between middle class and working class experience.
In the problem above, you examined racial and social class differences in victimization. You now wonder if the racial difference you found might be related to social class.
Construct Tables showing the relationship between victimization, race and social class.
Interpret the results.
Chapter 11
Imagine that we have conducted a much larger research project using the variables in the first question (race, class and victimization)
Table 1 Race
Victimization White Non-white Total
Yes 94 242 336
No 343 295 638
Total 437 537 974
What is the number of degrees of freedom for Table 1?
Test the null hypothesis that race and victimization are independent (alpha = .05). What do you conclude?
Imagine a separate study, using the same set of variables.
Table 2 Middle Class
Race
Victimization White Non-white Total
Yes 59 160 219
No 253 224 477
Total 312 384 696
Table 3 Working Class
Race
Victimization White Non-white Total
Yes 7 52 59
No 41 38 79
Total 48 90 138

Which class group has the higher percentage or respondents indicating that they have been a victim of crime in the past year?
For each class, test they hypothesis that race and reported victimization are independent (alpha = .01).
Learning Check
Explain what is meant by a positive relationship between two variables and a negative relationship between two variables. Give an example of a situation in criminology or criminal justice other than those given in the text or lecture in which we would expect to find a positive relationship and one in which we would expect to find a negative relationship. Can one assign direction when both variables in a table are dichotomous?

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