In this assignment, you will take Draft 2 (introduction and review of literature), written in Unit VI, and add the body of your
paper. Your body paragraphs should contain the six elements indicated below and be developed in an appropriate manner.
If the body does not contain these elements, it is likely you have not fully developed the body, and this lack of development
can severely impact your grade for this assignment. You will need to write at least four body paragraphs while incorporating
five academic sources for this assignment. The paragraphs should be thorough and cover all the listed elements. Your
Draft 3 (introduction, review of literature, and body) should include the elements listed below. With the addition of your
Body, you should have a paper that is approximately 7-10 pages long, without the addition of a conclusion or abstract and
without counting your cover page or references page.
Your grade for Draft 3 is largely based on your inclusion of various elements and the overall quality of your writing. Your
Draft 3 must contain the following elements.
1. Cover page and APA formatting:
You should include an APA-style cover page for your Draft 3. See the example on page 16 of The CSU APA Guide
(6th edition). Your cover page should include the following: the title of your paper, your name, and the name of your
university (Columbia Southern University). The running head should include up to 50 characters from the title of the
paper, along with a sequential page number in the upper right-hand corner.
Using the comments that you received on your Draft 2, revise your introduction. There are some pitfalls to writing
an introductory paragraph, and you can avoid some of them by reading through the Checklist: “Avoid Certain
Mistakes in the Introduction” on p. 495 of Strategies for Writing Successful Research Papers.
3. Review of literature:
Using the comments that you received on your Draft 1, revise your review of literature, and include it with this
4. Body paragraphs:
Each paragraph of the body of your Research Paper should be a cohesive unit. It should be tight, but developed. It
should serve a function, and its purpose should always be to bolster the thesis. Therefore, you should use the
following order for each paragraph in the body.
a. Topic sentence: This sentence summarizes the entire paragraph in one strong, well-written sentence, and it
directly supports the thesis statement.
b. Explanation of topic sentence (1-2 sentences): Often times there is more to be said about the topic sentence,
more explanation that is necessary in order for it to be a clear idea, so there are usually a few sentences that follow
the topic sentence that explicate the idea more for the reader. These sentences not only “unpack” the topic
sentence, but they also anticipate the evidence that will be used to support the topic sentence, usually indirectly.
c. Introduction to evidence (1-2 sentences): No piece of evidence (quotation, example, paraphrase, etc.) should
EH 1020, English Composition II 13
be dropped into a paragraph without first introducing it. An introduction might include the title of the source, the
author, and/or a short description of the source/author’s credentials. In this way, no evidence is presented without a
context because it is this context that makes the evidence meaningful.
d. Evidence: The evidence that you present backs up your topic sentence and, by extension, supports your thesis
statement. The evidence that you supply can be a number of things: a quotation from a source; a reasonable,
illustrative example; a statistic; commentary from an interview; etc.
e. Explanation of evidence: No piece of evidence stands on its own or is convincing on its own. Although it may
seem to draw a direct line to your topic sentence to support it, often the reader needs you to make the connection
between the two. Further, the general rule is that for each sentence of quoted material, your explanation should be
just as long, so if you include a block quotation, the block quotation should be met with an equally long explanation.
f. Transition (1-2 sentences): Transitions are essential for research papers because body paragraphs, especially,
are written as units, and it is the transitions that allow for these units to be linked together. Take a look at the list of
transitional expressions on pp. 44-45 in The Little, Brown Compact Handbook with Exercises.
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